Explanation of research methodology

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Thus, we must be careful concerning making statement of causality with quasi-experimental designs.It might be that repeated exposure to pollutants as opposed to age has caused the difference in lung capacity.A listing that should include all those in the population to be sampled and exclude all those who are not in the population (Alreck, 454).

Business Biography & History; Entrepreneurship; Leadership & Mentoring; Money...The design of a clinical trial is very similar to that of a true experiment.

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The third reason to sample is that testing the entire population often produces error.Text is reduced to categories consisting of a word, set of words or phrases, on which the researcher can focus.

Joubish, Farooq Dr. (2009). Educational Research Department of Education, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan.See also: Order and Disorder a division of logic devoted to the application of reasoning to science and philosophy.Franklin, M.I. (2012). Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide.The results are again restricted due to the quasi-correlational nature of the study.It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable.The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.During their hospitalization the treatment group received the special program and the control group did not.

The point is that there are many differences between the groups that we can not control that could account for differences in our dependent measures.Thus, individuals who volunteer to participate in an exersise study may be different that individuals who do not volunteer.We can get that information from operating on a small sample of rats.In other words, one group was not measured during the summer and the other during the winter.

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CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.0 Introduction In the previous chapter, the underlying theoretical framework of this study has been presented.The scores on these measures were influenced by and depended on whether the child was in the treatment or control group.The primary characteristic of each of these types of studies is that phenomena are being observed and recorded.

Examples of other threats to construct validity include subjects apprehension about being evaluated, hypothesis guessing on the part of subjects, and bias introduced in a study by expectencies on the part of the experimenter.Examples, but not an exhaustive discussion, of threats to each validity will be provided.

There are four types of validity that can be discussed in relation to research and statistics.These measures indicate the middle or center of a distribution.In other words, we can not make statements concerning cause and effect on the basis of this type of research.


Thus, as in this example, it would be problematic to study an entire population.One of the goals of science is description (other goals include prediction and explanation).RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.1. The concept of the research What are the new challenges women face today, how they cope with them, what they need in.As no random assignment exists in a quasi-experiment, no causal statements can be made based on the results of the study.

Learn the definition and concept of research design and types of research methodologies in pedagogy.Also, you probably would not want to buy a car that had the door slammed five hundred thousand time or had been crash tested.EbookNetworking.net: Allows you online search for PDF Books - ebooks for Free downloads In one place.Current search Churchill Explanation On Research Methodology.If one decides to generalize concepts during coding, then one must develop a set of rules by which less general concepts will be translated into more general ones.In other words, statistics are not numbers that just appear out of nowhere.All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.As you can see from the discussion above, one can not make a simple cause and effect statement concerning neurotransmitter levels and depression based on correlational research.

For example, if our strata were individuals schools in the St.Specific words or patterns are indicative of the research question and determine levels of analysis and generalization.The extent to which research findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population can be applied to the population at large.

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The first is to consult a random number table, and the second is to have the computer select a random sample.Perhaps more of the older group smoked in their early years as compared to the younger group due to increased awareness of the hazards of cigarettes.Correlational research can be accomplished by a variety of techniques which include the collection of empirical data.

A methodology is the design process for carrying out research or the development of a procedure and is not in itself an instrument, or method, or procedure for doing things.Results can often be generalized, though this is not always the case.AIOU to set up Intl Center of Excellence and Research Participants were 109 graduate students enrolled in a research methodology course.Double blind - neither the subject nor the experimenter knows whether the subject is in the treatment of the control condition.First, every experiment must have at least two groups: an experimental and a control group.Presumably you have an extremely well-considered explanation for some.Learn more about types of research, experimental design, and relationships between variables.